Assessment of women’s awareness about reproductive and breast cancers

Karina Weronika Kosińska, Weronika Maria Lubawa, Magdalena Szczęśniak, Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman, Izabella Miechowicz, Grażyna Bączyk, Agnieszka Ulatowska, Michał Umbreit

Abstract


Introduction. The aspect of prevention and treatment of malignant tumours is a key problem of public health in Poland, posing a great challenge for the health care system. A perfect method of fighting against neoplasms is prevention. Its widespread use may allow reduction in the risk of developing cervical and breast cancer.
Aim. The aim of the paper was to assess women’s awareness about prophylaxis and risk factors related to the development of reproductive and breast cancers among women subject to the survey.
Materials and Methods. The analysis comprised a group of 154 women at the age from 17 to 70. The study was conducted between 17 March and 30 July 2015. The research tool used in the study was an independently prepared survey questionnaire.
Results. The biggest group of respondents (48.70%) was made up of women at the age from 20 to 30. 68.83% of the women had a secondary level education, 42.20% were women from cities of between 51.000 to 100.000 inhabitants and only 1.94% represented large cities of over 500.000 inhabitants. A change in the size or shape of the breast (88.96%) and changes in the look of the nipple (86.36%) were quoted as the most frequent symptom of breast cancer.
Conclusions. The knowledge about reproductive organs and breast cancer prevention among women is not fully satisfactory and needs to be broadened. Media (internet, television) were the most popular source of information on cancer prevention among the respondents. It is necessary for family doctors and midwives to intensify health‑care activities aimed especially at women who are the age associated with an increased risk for cancer.

Keywords


cancer; risk factors; prevention

Full Text:

PDF

References


Nowicki A, Olszewska A, Humańska M. Selfexamination influence on breast cancer detection. Research conducted in women after breast amputation. Ginekol Pol. 2007;4:293–298.

Zbucka M, Leśniewska M, Knapp P, Wołczyński S. How we can modify the risk of breast cancer? Przegląd Menopauzalny. 2005;6:70–75.

Antoniou AC, Pharoah PD, Narod S et al. Breast and ovarian cancer risks to carriers of the BRCA1 5382insC and 185delAG and BRCA2 6174delT mutations: a combined analysis of 22 population based studies. J Med Genet. 2005;42:602–603.

Tan DSP, Rothermundt Ch, Thomas K et al.: “BRCAness” syndrome in ovarian cancer: a case – control study describing the clinical features and outcome of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. J Clin Oncol. 2008;26:5530–5536. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2008.16.1703.

Antoniou AC, Pharoah PD, Narod S et al. Breast and ovarian cancer risks to carriers of the BRCA1 5382insC and 185delAG and BRCA2 6174delT mutations: a combined analysis of 22 population based studies. J Med Genet. 2005;42:602–603.

Anastiasiadis P, Koutlaki N, Skaphida P et al. Ovarian cancer epidemiology In Thrace, Greece. Eur J Gynecol Oncol. 2000;XX(3):298.

Niwińska A. Hormonalne uwarunkowania raka sutka. Ginekol Pol. 1997;68:558–562.

Tsai HT, Tsai YM, Yang SF et al. Lifetime cigarette smoke and second-hand smoke and cervical intraepithelial neoplasm – A community-based case-control study. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:181–188.

Mueller L, Munk C, Thomsen B et al. The influence of parity and smoking in the social environment on tobacco consumption among daily smoking women in Denmark. Eur Addict Res. 2007;13:177–184.

Au W, Abdou-Salama S, Sierra-Torres C et al. Enviromental risk factors and molecular intervention of cervical cancer. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2007;210:671–678.

Spaczyński M, Kędzia W, Nowak-Markwitz E. Profilaktyka pierwotna i wtórna raka szyjki macicy, diagnostyka i leczenie. Polskie Towarzystwo Ginekologiczne, Poznań 2008.

Horner MJ, Ries LA, Krapcho M et al. SEER cancer Statistics Review, 1975–2006, National Cancer Institute. National Cancer Institute, Bethesda 2009.

US Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for breast cancer: US. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151:716–26. doi: 10.7326/0003–4819–151–10–200911170–00008.

Jassem J, Bobek‑Billewicz B, Krzakowski M et al. Rak piersi. W: Zalecenia postępowania diagnostyczno‑terapeutycznego w nowotworach złośliwych. Polska Unia Onkologii, 2009.

Najdyhor E, Krajewska‑Kułak E, Krajewska‑Ferishah K. Knowledge of women and men about breast cancer prevention. Ginekol Pol. 2013;84:116–125.

Przysada G, Bojczuk T, Kuźniar A et al. Level of knowledge of women for the purpose a prophylaxis and early recognition of breast cancer. Young Sports Science. 2009;3:129–136.

Paździor A, Stachowska M, Zielińska A. Women’s knowledge about breast cancer prevention. Now Lekar. 2011;6:419–422.

Przestrzelska M, Knihinicka-Mercik Z, Kaźmierczak I, Mess E. Zachowania zdrowotne kobiet w profilaktyce nowotworu szyjki macicy i sutka. Onkol Pol. 2006;9:172–175.

Hughes LE, Mansel RE, Webster DJT. Benign Disorders and Diseases of the Breast. Concepts and Clinical Menagement. WB Saunders, Philadelphia 2000.

Zych B, Marć M, Binkowska‑Bury M. The level of knowledge of women over 35 concerning the prevention of breast cancer. Prz Med Uniw Rzesz. 2006;1:27–33.

Cichocka M, Borek M, Krawczyń W, Maciąg D. Wiedza kobiet w zakresie zapobiegania nowotworom piersi i raka szyjki macicy. Acta Scientifica Academiae Ostroviensis. 2012;1:5–26.

Mędrela-Kuder E. Awareness level of risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer among female university students in Krakow. Polski Przegląd Nauk o Zdrowiu. 2014;1:20–24.

Zatoński W. Europejski kodeks walki z rakiem. Centrum Onkologii – Instytut im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie, Warszawa 2011.

Plagens-Rotman K, Żak E, Pięta B. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer. Menopause Rev. 2016;1:12–19. doi: 10.5114/pm.2016.58767

Prokopczyk B, Cox JE, Hoffmann D. Identification of tobacco‑specific carcinogen in the cervical mucus of smokers and nonsmokers. J Nat Cancer Inst. 1997;89:868–873.

Kazimierczak M, Sipiński A, Stępień K et al. Profilaktyczne badanie cytologiczne w opinii kobiet z województw śląskiego i świętokrzyskiego. Ann Acad Med Siles. 2005;59:367–372.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20883/jms.2017.132

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Copyright (c) 2017 Journal of Medical Science

Copyright 2016 by Journal of Medical Sciences